International Journal of Marketing Studies
Vol. 3, No. 2; May 2011
The Influence of Brand Loyalty on Cosmetics Buying
Behavior of UAE Female Consumers
Dr. Hamza Salim Khraim
Marketing Department, Faculty of Business
Middle East University, Amman, Jordan
Received: January 24, 2011
Accepted: February 9, 2011
The worldwide annual expenditures for cosmetics is estimated at U.S. $18 billion, and many players in the field are competing aggressively to capture more and more markets. The purpose of this article is to investigate the influence of brand loyalty on cosmetics buying behavior of female consumers in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name, product quality, price, design, promotion, service quality and store environment. Questionnaires were distributed and self-administered to 382 respondents. Descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation were used in this study. The findings of this study indicated that brand name has shown strong correlation with brand loyalty. The research results showed that there is positive and significant relationship between factors of brand loyalty (brand name, product quality, price, design, promotion, service quality and store environment) with cosmetics brand loyalty. Keywords: Female buying behavior, Brand loyalty, Cosmetics, UAE 1. Introduction
The history of cosmetics spans at least 6,000 years of human history, and almost every society on earth. In the Western world, the use of cosmetics became prominent in the middle ages, typically among members of the upper classes. Although it is generally believed that cosmetics as they are now known originated in the Far East, the study of non-industrial cultures indicates the use of cosmetics in every part of the world. The war paint of native Americans, the tattooing and scarification (making of superficial incisions of the skin) practiced by many peoples (the Maori of New Zealand and numerous African cultures, for instance), and the use of woad (a plant dye used by ancient Britons to paint their bodies blue) are all forms of cosmetic used for psychological intimidation of the enemy as well as adornment (Draelos, 2007). The general term cosmetics is applied to all preparations used externally to condition and beautify the body, by cleaning, coloring, softening, or protecting the skin, hair, nails, lips, or eyes. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates cosmetics in the United States, defines cosmetics as products "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this particular category. Of the major firms, the oldest and the largest is L'Oréal, was founded by Eugene Schueller in 1909 as the French Harmless Hair Coloring Company. The market was developed in the United States during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and Max Factor. These firms were joined by Revlon just before World War II and Estée Lauder just after (Mayell, 2004). The growth of cosmetics and beauty products markets have surged significantly as consumers are increasingly becoming aware about appearance, beauty, grooming and choice of personal care products. According to Whittaker (2007) there are more than 3,300 companies manufacturing and distributing cosmetic and skin care products in the United States alone. 1.1 Research Significance and Objectives
In the UAE, the beauty and cosmetics sector is experiencing unprecedented growth. Recent statistics reveal a category growth of 12 per cent annually and market value of $1.7 billion, which is expected to exceed $2.1 billion this year (Chaudhry, 2008). This study will...
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