Overgrazing

Topics: Ecosystem, Biodiversity, Soil Pages: 5 (1296 words) Published: July 7, 2013
Field trip
Introduction
Biodiversity:Biological diversity, simply means the diversity, or variety of plants and animals and other living things in a particular area or region. Biodiversity also means the number, or abundance of different species living within a particular region. In practice, "biodiversity" suggests sustaining the diversity of species in each ecosystem as we plan human activities that affect the use of the land and natural resources. 1. Species diversity

2. Ecosystem diversity Biodiversity
3. Genetic diversity

Study aim:
Investigate the natural and artificial ecosystems to understand the relationship between the components (e.g plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, light, and humidity) in each ecosystem, the physical factors and the differences between these two ecosystems. Location:

1. Natural ecosystem-Bukit Gasing: The Bukit Gasing Forest Park straddles the border of Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. The area is over 100 hectares. It is the complex of a community and its environment functioning as an ecological unit in nature, and both living and non-living things that interact with each other. The area is recognized destination for bird watching with over 250 species. There is a great deal of recycling of organic matter in a natural ecosystem so it is stable.

2. Artificial ecosystem-Sunway College: Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor in Malaysia. It is man-made and imitated naturally occurring ones. The amount of species is quite limited. It requires large inputs of organic matter in the form of food, very little of the organic matter that enters this ecosystem is recycled so it is unstable.

Species in Bukit Gasing

Species in Sunway College

*Location to carry out the fieldwork: collect soil and air randomly in each ecosystem, looking for the place living things will emerge in.

History:
| Human activities| Effects|
Bukit Gasing| Suspension bridge was built | It will affect the behaviours of organisms.| | Some people may burn or cut plants.| It will affect biological balance and food chain in this ecosystem.| | Some people may hunt the animals in this ecosystem.| | Sunway College| The original plants were removed. | The biodiversity of the plants is forced to decrease in this ecosystem. | | Tiny gardens were laid out in formal style. | Maybe new species will be introduced into this ecosystem.|

Sunway College

Bukit Gasing

Materials and methods
Materials:
Sample bottles, PH Meter, Camera, Spade, 1*1m net,

Procedure:
1. Collect soil, water and air in each ecosystem.
2. PH Meter is used to measure the PH of the soil and water in each ecosystem. 3. BOD values: take 2 water samples from each ecosystem. The water samples are poured into a beaker. 50ml of each water sample is measured by measuring cylinder and pour it into a reagent bottle and label them respectively. This 2 reagent bottles is then placed into the box. 3 drops of methylene blue solution is added into each water sample by dropper. The reagent bottles is placed into a box and do not shake it. The reaction is observed every hour. The time taken for methylene blue solution should be to decolourise is recorded. 4. Plant density: get to an area, throw the 1*1 square meter net randomly, and count the number of the leaves, which should be recorded.

Techniques:
Sampling methods: In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with...
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