Marketing Strategies

Topics: Brand, Branding, Brand management Pages: 12 (3274 words) Published: October 14, 2013
Tabale of COntent

I. Introduction

Globalization concept is studied since 1870 (Lee et al, 2009); during the development of its concept, there are many debates around consequence of convergence process of the world. In last three decades, globalization is predicted as noticeable trend causing the homogeneity of consumption pattern in near future (Levitt, 1983 in Robson , 2005), whereas, in this days and age, homogeneity of customer needs, taste and lifestyles is indicated as an impossible phenomenon (De Mooij M., 2011). The debate of globalization versus localization leads to examining application of the maxim- “think global, act local” in different markets across the world. Failures of global brand in standardizing its name, brand image perception, causes the suspicion of existence of global brand.

The aim of this study is to examine two dimensions of brand image perception of customer: country of origin effect and brand name. Afterward, my personal opinion of existence of global brand will be proved in discussion part through previous researches and remarkable successes of some global brands in reality.

II. Body
1. Literature review
1.1 Global brands
“A global brand is one that available in most countries in the world” ( De Mooij, 2005, pp 14)

Global brands are defied as brands whose dimensions: personality, position, emotion, and advertising are represented almost the same cross the world but it is never identical from one country to another (Aaker; Joachimsthaler, 1999). That means global brands do not need to be identical in all markets, the adaptation might be involve partly in global marketing strategy. According to Wright et al (2007), brand name, advertised benefit and perceived reputation are three components creating the world wide recognition of global brands. However, there is a debate that brand awareness is not enough for multinational corporations to develop global brands (Atilgana et al, 2009) because cultural and psychological elements can prevent customers from consuming global brands like “anti- globalization” trend (Simmons, 2005), low status seeking (Roy & Chau, 2011), ethnocentrism (Ashok et al, 2011), COO effect (Sertan &Dwan, 2011). Hence, global brand equity consist of four dimensions: brand trust (replace brand awareness), brand loyalty, brand associations and perceived quality (Atilgana et al, 2009). Among them, brand trust is the prevailing topic in the recent academic researches on global branding, global consumption orientation, and corporate reputation (Wanga X. & Yang Z., 2010).

1.2 Perception of global brands by consumers
Customers’ memory, which shape identification and meanings of brand (DeMooij, 2005), are developed by cultural, historical values. Cultural factor is considered as a powerful influencer for consumers on the way they perceive service/product quality and brand name(Malaia & Speeceb, 2005). Cultural value influence directly consumption value and local environment influence strongly on customer’s choice. The differences between cultures cause the differences of brand image perception of customer across countries (Park; Rabolt, 2009). Local environment can be a barrier for expanding of international firms. Recently with the call for consuming local brands in developing countries, one per ten consumers worldwide avoids global brands (Riefler P., 2012). Therefore, in some markets, global brands need be perceived as local (De Mooij, 2005). Therefore the concept of adaptations attract more attentions of both academic researchers and practicers when customers becomes more sophisticated and more aware of global brand. Nonetheless, corporate image, firm’s status is outside the circle of cultural effect, is strong foundation for multinational corporations generating brand globalization, centralization (Matanda et al, 2012). Beside the culture, economy is an considerable element in launching brand in new market, Yeniyurt et al. (2007) suggest...

References: Aaker, D. A., & Joachimsthaler E. (1999), The lure of global branding, Harvard Business Review, 77(6), 137–144.
Anja S. (1997) Consumer knowledge and country of origin effects, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31 (1), pp. 56 – 72
Ashok R
Atilgana E.; Akincia S.; Aksoya S. and Kaynakb E. (2009) Customer-Based Brand Equity for Global Brands: A Multinational Approach, Journal of Euro marketing, 18(2), pp. 115-132
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Chan A. K. (1997): Localization in international branding: a longitudinal comparison of the Chinese names of foreign brands in Hong Kong between 1987-1988 and 1994-1995, Journal of Marketing Communications, 3 (2), pp. 127-137.
De Mooij M. (2003) Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising, International Journal of Advertising, 22, pp. 183–202
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Fan Ying (2002) The National Image of Global Brands, Journal of Brand Management, 9 (3), pp.180-192
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Lee, K. and Carter S. (2009) Global marketing management: changes, new challenges, and strategies, 2nd ed., Oxford : Oxford University Press, pp 70-103
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Malaia V. & Speeceb M. (2005)Cultural Impact on the Relationship Among Perceived Service Quality, Brand Name Value, and Customer Loyalty, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 17 (4), pp. 7-39
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Narasimhan S.; Subhash C. J. and Kiranjit S. (2004) An experimental study of two dimensions of country-of-origin (manufacturing country and branding country) using intrinsic and extrinsic cues, International Business Review, 13(1), pp 65-82
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Riefler P.,(2012) Why consumers do (not) like global brands: The role of globalization attitude, GCO and global brand origin, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29 (2012), pp 25–34
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Yeniyurt S. &Townsend J. D. and Talay M. B.(2007) Factors Influencing Brand Launch in a Global Marketplace, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 24 (5), pp 471–485, 2007
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