Lab 3 – Biodiversity
Demonstration 1: Interdependence of Species
|Table 1: Interdependence of Species Results | |Round |Species Missing (Bead Color and Name) | |1 |Linchens | |2 |Bees | |3 |Trees | |4 |Flowers |
POST LAB QUESTIONS
1. Explain how the ecosystem was affected by the missing species for each round of the demonstration.
a. Round 1 = white bead representing lichens. Our laboratory reading for the experiment stated that lichens are instrumental in the development and needs for all species. The text stated, “Lichens play a part in the creation of soils from which plants can obtain nutrients. Like all living organisms, lichens need nutrients and energy to grow. Nutrients may be obtained from the air including dust, water, and from the substrate organisms grows on obtaining energy through photosynthesis, which is the role of the algal partner. They may also be incidentally fertilized hybrid and insect dung” (Bottcher & Rex, 2012, p. 43). With the information obtained from the reading, without lichens, bees, trees, flowers, and humans will all have negative repercussions.
b. Round 2 = Yellow bead, representing bees. No bees and lichens the trees will not be pollenated, which will result in a loss of a food source for humans since bees pollenate trees and flowers for food. Without bees to pollenating, the ecosystems takes another dramatic step towards extinction. One study stated, “Deduction from floral structure indicates that the flowers of many crops and wild plants are adapted for bee pollination. Further experimental studies of pollination are much needed, to see whether inadequate pollination limits seed set, and which insect species are potential or actual pollinators. The adequacy of pollination of a given plant species will vary regionally with climate, habitat and the nature and density of the local pollinator community” (Corbet, Williams, & Osborne, 1991, para. 3). Minus the bees, the results for all other species will be negatively impacted.
c. Round 3 = Orange bead, representing trees. The trees are dependent on lichens and with lichens removed. The trees will not have enriched soil to keep living. This is the reason for loss of oxygen for all species who require it and without bees, the fruit that some trees produce will cease to exist, causing food shortages and lack of shade and protection for flowers and humans (Bottcher & Rex, 2012).
d. Round 4 = Red bead, representing flowers. Lichens removed the soil could not adequately support nutrients required to keep alive. The flowers needs protection and shade from trees to sustain life and the trees were removed due to soil composition and loss of lichens from ecosystem.
2. Provide one action we as humans engage in that leads to the extinction of each of these components.
Action affecting Lichens = The use of pesticides, chemicals, other pollutants, and people cause damage to this component that can lead to the irreversible impact on the lichens.
Action affecting Trees = The destruction of soil and pollution, a major area where humans are impacting trees is through the removal of forests for trees to support human projects and constructions. “Ninety-three percent...
References: Hilmo, O., & Såstad, S. M. (2001). Colonization of old-forest lichens in a young and an old boreal< i> Picea abies forest: an experimental approach. Biological Conservation, 102 (3), 251-259.
Chapin III, F. S., Costanza, R., Ehrlich, P. R., Golley, F. B., Hooper, D. U., Lawton, J. H., ... & Tilman, D. (1999). Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: maintaining natural life support processes. Washington, DC: Ecological Society of America.
Hazelbaker, J. (2008). Logging on national forests national forest management zero cut – no. Retrieved from: http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/logging-on-national-forests-national-forest-management-zero-cut-no-26744/.
Corbet, S. A., Williams, I. H., & Osborne, J. L. (1991). Bees and the pollination of crops and wild flowers in the European Community. Bee World 7 (2), 47-59.
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