This chapter comprises of the background, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, the scope of the study and the conceptual framework. 1.2 Background to the problem
Every 10 years, the IUCN World Parks Congress (WPC) brings together conservation experts from around the world to share information and ideas, and set a global policy agenda for protected areas. The 5th IUCN World Parks Congress was held in Durban, South Africa from September 8–17, 2004, and was attended by approximately 3,000 protected area experts, practitioners, and decision makers. The 5th WPC brought human–wildlife conflict (HWC) to the global stage as part of an effort to address current challenges facing protected area management and conservation. The HWC recommendation was informed by a technical workshop that was part of the WPC proceedings. The workshop entitled “Creating Coexistence Between Humans and Wildlife: Global Perspectives on Local Efforts to Address Human-Wildlife Conflict” combined vigorous debate on human–wildlife conflict issues with a technical focus on useful outputs for those working in the profession .T he “Creating Coexistence” workshop included approximately 30 practitioners and professionals from a variety of institutions, disciplines, and geographic regions. To begin, eight case studies of specific efforts to address HWC involving a variety of species and settings were presented. Panelists then offered “lessons learned” for group discussion. Participants also worked as a group to explore specific challenges in the HWC area, including the potential for creating a “toolbox” of best practices, the identification of critical needs and gaps that characterize the HWC field, and the identification of the types of baseline data that need to be assessed in order to design effective strategies for preventing or mitigating HWC .Finally, workshop participants considered what, if any, steps were needed for global cooperation on HWC and drafted a recommendation that was approved. A collective vision emerged for how conservationists, biologists, social scientists, practitioners, and researchers should address human–wildlife conflict. Work-shop participants also identified gaps and needs in the field of HWC prevention and mitigation, including those related to capacity, tools, research, management, policies, and action. In addition, the workshop produced a formal recommendation included as WPC Rec 5.20 in the official 5th WPC Durban output. Perhaps most important, the group defined “next steps” for global work on HWC and made a commitment to move forward as a unified body to create a framework to develop and apply tools for preventing and mitigating the HWC. The “Creating Coexistence” workshop allowed experts and practitioners(who largely work in isolation from each other), as well as protected area stakeholders struggling with HWC issues in their specific region, to begin this process of improved exchange and enhanced action. With over 100 years of experience in nature conservation and 2,500staff working in over 60 countries worldwide, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) aims to secure the long-term future of priority terrestrial and marine species and habitats around the world. Using methods grounded in robust science and working closely with local communities and other partners at many levels, WCS develops science-based solutions to ensure measurable conservation impact and enhance capacity to enable these targets to be met. WCS's global coral reef conservation effort incorporates active programs in Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Belize and many smaller initiatives in other countries that address key issues in wildlife, including fisheries, MPA, climate change, and pollution.WCS focuses on developing and implementing effective management systems that are both based on science and carefully...
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