Guinness Brewery: Strategic Brand Management
Brand is, according to Davidson (1995), “a collection of attributes which strongly influence purchase”. The aim of this writing is to evaluate the brand Guinness and determinate attributes of it which give the desire to purchase for customers. Brand and customer equity, then the Customer Based Brand Equity Model and the advantage of branding will be respectively described and discussed during the writing. The Guinness brewery is a famous Irish beers producer. The brewery born in 1759 at Dublin’s St James’ Gate owned by the founder Arthur Guinness. He started by produce Porter beers which was exported from London to Dublin and was famous at this time. Then in the 1790s he had the idea to create his own beer in the same style: “porter” and “stout” beers, relatively new on the Irish market. It became Diageo in 1997, after a merger with Grand Metropolitan, largely oriented in alcohol and spirituous production. Two divisions have born of this merger, United Distillers; the spirits business and Guinness Brewery Worldwide which manage all the beers business with brand like Guinness, Kilkenny, Cruzcampo etc. The brand evaluate in a mature market in Ireland, consequently, it targets other countries but try to stay in the same market to keep their brand image adapting with customers needs and tastes. Nowadays Guinness is one of the beers the most sold in the world. According to Park, Jaworski and Maclnnis (1991) branded product bring three main benefits to customers. We can analyse them in link with the Guinness brand. Firstly, there is the functional benefit, with Guinness it is to quench one’s thirst. Secondly, there is the symbolic effect. For Guinness it means to do part of a community, people who likes good beers who have taste or be part of the Irish or Celtic culture. Thirdly, there is the experimental effect which means how do you feel after test it, in the case of Guinness, you can fell relax and satisfied with a good taste in mouth.
The brand equity theory according to Simon and Sullivan (1993) is from intangible factors: image, reputation and brand loyalty. Guinness has a good image, authentic, Celtic and Irish stout beer. Moreover it is a well know beer, with good reputation, one of the most famous dark beer in the world. Then for brand loyalty, it is important to notice than over ten million people in the world drink a Guinness every day. However, according to Kapferer (1997), brand equity is built from intangible factors added to tangible factors such as quality, design, patents, and reliability. The Guinness brand identity is built from 3 main principles: the product, the experience of drinking the product, and its history. It is known for is quality and an inimitable and traditional know how. It is a taste, a kind of beer which inspires lot of other dark beers. It has a particular design, simple and cultural aspect with strong symbol as the Harp and the Toucan. It is also a way to serve it in order to the bubbles stabilizes and a way of drink. Guinness has its own style. Therefore, to protect this unique style Guinness is a trademark and owns patents for several innovations such as the “floating widget” for imitate the draught beer taste in cans. On other hand, modernizing the brand identity and keep it trendy with lot of advertises, Guinness had known improve its impact and appeal on consumer, while keeping its historical value. It targets new customers of the new generation thank to dynamic and sport image, funny advertising or developing Guinness World Records (events, advertising, news, television...)
Rust, Zeithmal and Lemon create the customer equity model (2000), which determinate elements as value equity grouping quality, price and convenience, the brand equity and finally the relationship equity containing brand loyalty, the community and knowledge. Guinness is a product of quality and culture and it is also a historical and mystique product....
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