Getting 5 Stars In 9 Weeks Biology Chapter 12 E

Topics: Biodiversity, Ecology, Pollution Pages: 13 (2466 words) Published: July 6, 2015
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Chapter

Applied Ecology

WEEK

12

Applied Ecology

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12.1 Human Impact on the Environment

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Pattern of human population growth

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影響人口增長的因素包括:生育率 (birth rate) 、死亡率 (death rate) 、移入 (immigration) 及移出 (emigration) 。

© 2014 Hong Kong Educational Publishing Co.

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Getting 5** in 9 Weeks: Biology



Reasons for abrupt increase in human population after mid-17th century: – improved farming techniques, better storage
improved technologies
control of infectious diseases
advances in medical care
improved quality of life

Impact of rapid human population growth
Impact

Causes

Food crisis

Populations increase in an exponential rate
Rate of food consumption > Rate of food production
Shortage of food for human

Pollution problem

The increased population and industrialization have produced wastes much faster than the environment can absorb or recycle.

Depletion of natural
resources

1. Exhaustion of non-renewable resources: coal, oil, minerals 2. Overexploitation of renewable resources: fishery, forestry

Destruction of
natural environment

Agriculture and urban development need clearance of lands
Destruction of scenery
Removal of vegetation cover

Hence, population control is needed to ensure a sustainable supply of natural resources and conservation of the environment.

Types of resources
Renewable
resources

Resources that can be regenerated by natural processes as quickly as they are used up, e.g. food or materials derived from plants, animals, timber, sunlight, wind and tidal power.

Non-renewable
resources

Resources that cannot be regenerated or can only be regenerated by natural processes over extremely long period of time, e.g. fossil fuels (e.g. coal, natural gas and petroleum) and metals (e.g. gold, iron and copper).

© 2014 Hong Kong Educational Publishing Co.

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Fisheries, agriculture and forestry
Fisheries is the practice of capturing wild fish or rearing fish or other aquatic organisms through fish farming.

WEEK

Applied Ecology

Agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising animals for food and other products.
Forestry refers to the using, creating and managing forest. • Impacts of malpractices in fisheries, agriculture and forestry: Impacts
Fisheries

Agriculture

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2.

Overfishing depletes certain fish species.
Biodiversity ↓
Disturbs the ecological balance
The use of dynamite and trawl nets destructs the natural
marine habitats.
3. Fish farming leads to water pollution (e.g. feed wastage, fish excretion and faecal production).
1. Clearing forests for agriculture destroys the natural habitats and reduces biodiversity.
2. Agricultural practices (e.g. ploughing and overgrazing) causes soil erosion.
3. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides causes chemical pollution.
4. Monoculture causes:
depletion of minerals in the soil
increased pest population
loss of some natural species

單種栽培 (monoculture) 是指在廣闊的範圍內種植單一種農作物 的農業耕作方式。
Forestry

Extensive deforestation causes:
destroys the natural habitats and reduces biodiversity
overexploitation of forest resources
soil erosion (may result in flooding and desertification) – global warming

© 2014 Hong Kong Educational Publishing Co.

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Getting 5** in 9 Weeks: Biology

Effects of urbanization and industrialization

1. Land clearance and reclamation
Land clearance and reclamation are the common practices to obtain lands for urbanization and industrialization.
Ecological impact of
Land clearance

Reclamation

1. Destroy the natural habitats (e.g. the
forests and wetlands)
2. Depletion of a lot of plant and animal
species
3. Destroy the beauty of landscape
4. Soil erosion

1. Destroy the wetland, coastal and
seabed habitats
2. Dredging...
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