Corporate Identity

Topics: Brand management, Marketing, Brand Pages: 11 (3028 words) Published: September 26, 2011
Corporate identity – the management of the process of change in the name/logo in the context of brands’ merger

Joana César Machado
Paulo de Lencastre
Pedro Dionísio

Universidade Católica Portuguesa
E-mail: jcmachado@porto.ucp.pt
E-mail: plencastre@porto.ucp.pt
Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa
E-mail: pedro.dionisio@imr.pt

Abstract
The creation of strong corporate identity, including identity signs, is crucial for companies to encourage positive attitudes in its different target publics (Dowling, 1993; Van Riel & Balmer, 1997), and may provide an important competitive advantage (Simões, Dibb & Fisk, 2005). The corporate name and logo are two essential components of the corporate identity construct, since they are the most pervasive elements in corporate and brand communications (Henderson & Cote, 1998; Schechter, 1993), and play a crucial role in the communication of the desired positioning strategy (Alessandrini, 2001; Van Riel & Van den Ban, 2001). The reasons for changes in the brand identity signs are numerous, nevertheless mergers are one of the main events leading to a new name and logo (Ettenson, 2004; Kapferer, 1997; Dellatre, 1999 and 2002; Stuart & Muzellec, 2004). Furthermore, the building of a strong and clear corporate visual identity is critical for the merger’s success (Balmer e Dinnie,1999; Melewar, 2001; Rosson e Brooks, 2004). On the other hand, we should notice that there is a need for empirical research in the domain of the management of corporate identity, namely visual identity (Melewar, 2001), as well as studies that examine the reaction of the several audiences to the management of corporate identity (Simões, Dibb & Fisk, 2005). The aim of this study is therefore to give an answer to the following research questions: 1. In a merger situation, what type of behaviours can organisations assume in terms of corporate identity, in particular, in respect to the identity signs (name and logo)? 2. How are the different corporate identity change options perceived by consumers (recognition, affect, associations)?

Conceptual background
In the first part of the conceptual background we define the brand, departing from the Peircean conception of a sign[1], as a concept established in three columns: the sign column (name, logo), the object column (product, organisation) and the interpretative column (the image in the different target publics of the brand) (Mollerup 1997; Lencastre 1997). Next we present the most relevant theoretical perspectives on the name and logo, the key elements of the brand identity mix, given their generalised use and legal protection, and explain how these identity signs may contribute to the creation of brand awareness and the formation of brand associations. In the third part, we explore the most relevant perspectives on corporate identity, and present an holistic view of the construct, which may include corporate symbols, communications and behaviour (Balmer, 2001; Hatch and Schultz, 1997; Van Riel and Balmer, 1997), but also the mission, philosophy and values (Abratt, 1989; Balmer, 1994; Simões, Dibb & Fisk, 2005), or organisational culture (Baker & Balmer, 1997; Melewar & Jenkins, 2002; Stuart, 1998). Our focus is on one of the dimensions of the corporate identity construct, namely the main identity signs – names and logos – that the organisation uses to identify itself, to communicate its mission and values and delineate the relations with its audiences (Alessandrini, 2001; Henderson e Cote, 1998; Van Riel & Van den Ban, 2001). In the fourth part we present a conceptual framing of corporate image, and suggest that corporate identity and corporate image are closely interrelated, because perceptions among various audiences often build on overall communication instruments used by organisations (including names, logos/symbols, etc.) (Dacin e Brown, 2002; Zinkhan e al, 2001). Finally, we present a typology of the corporate identity structures that...

References: Abratt, R. 1989. A new approach to the corporate image management process. Journal of Marketing Management, 5(1): 63-76.
Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. 1980. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Alessandrini, S. W. 2001. Modeling corporate identity: A concept explication and theoretical explanation. Corporate Communications, 6(4): 173-183.
Atkinson, R. C. & Juola, J. F. 1973. Factors influencing speed and accuracy of word recognition. in Attention and Special Performance IV, S. Kornblum, ed.New York: Academic Press.
Baker, M.J. & Balmer, J.M.T. 1997. Visual Identity: Trappings or substance. European Journal of Marketing, 31(5/6): 366-375.
Balmer, J.M.T. 1994. The BBC’s corporate identity: Myth, paradox and reality. Journal of General Management, 19(3): 33-49.
Balmer, J.M.T. 2001. Corporate identity, corporate branding and corporate marketing – Seeing through the fog. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4): 248-270.
Balmer, J.M.T. & Dinnie, K. 1999. Corporate identity and corporate communications: The antidote to merger madness. Corporate Communications, 4(4): 182-194.
Dacin, P. & Brown, T.J. 2002. Corporate identity and corporate associations: A framework for future research. Corporate Reputation Review, 5(2-3): 254-266.
Dellatre, E. 1999. Les changements de nom des entreprises. LÉxpansion Management Review, 94(September): 107-114.
Dellatre, E. 2002. Business Name changes: The French experience. Journal of Small Business Management, 40(4): 360-367.
Dowling, G.R. 1993. Developing Your Corporate Image into a Corporate Asset. Long Range Planning, 26(2): 101-109.
Durgee, J. F. & Stuart, R. W. 1987. Advertising symbols and brand names that best represent key product meanings. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 4(3): 15-24.
Ettenson, R. 2004. An empirical analysis of corporate brand strategies during M&A: Merging the brands and branding the merger. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications, April.
Hatch, M. J. & Schultz, M. 1997. Relations between organizational culture, identity and image. European Journal of Marketing, 31(5/6), 356.
Henderson, P. W., & Cote, J. A. 1998. Guidelines for selecting and modifying logos. Journal of Marketing, 62, April: 14-30.
Henderson, P. W., & Cote, J. A. 2003. Building strong brands in Asia: Selecting the visual components of image to maximize brand strength. International Journal of Marketing Research, 20: 297-313.
Hoyer, W. D. & Brown, S. P. 1990. Effects of brand awareness on choice for a common, repeat purchase product. Journal of Consumer Research, 17: 141-148.
Jacoby, L. L. & Dallas, M. 1981. On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 19(1): 42-46.
Janiszewski, C. & Meyvis, T. 2001. Effects of brand logo complexity, repetition and spacing on processing fluency and judgement. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1): 18-32.
Kapferer, J.-N. 1997. Strategic Brand Management – Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term. London: Kogan Page.
Keller, K.-L. 1993. Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57: 1-22.
Klink, R. R. 2001. Creating meaningful new brand names: A study of semantics and sound symbolism. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9(2): 27-34.
Klink, R. R. 2003. Creating meaningful new brand names: The relationship between brand name and brand mark. Marketing Letters, 14(3): 143-157.
Kohli, C. S., Harich, K. R. & Leuthesser, L. 2005. Creating brand identity: A study of evaluation of new brand names. Journal of Business Research, 58: 1506-1515.
Kopp, H. R., Warren, A. F. & Jimmy, E. H. 1990. Trademark management – Not brand management. Business, 40(October-December): 17-24.
Lencastre, P. 1997. L’identification de la Marque, un Outil de Stratégie de Marketing: le Nom de la Marque, le Logotype et la Mémorisation. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve.
Leong, S. M. 1993. Consumer decision making for a common, repeat-purchase product: A dual replication. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2(2): 193-208.
Melewar, T.C. 2001. Measuring visual identity: A multi-construct study. Corporate Communications. 6(1): 36-43.
Melewar, T.C. & Jenkins, E. 2002. Defining the corporate identity construct. Corporate Reputation Review. 5(1): 76-93.
Mollerup, P. 1997. Marks of Excellence – The function and variety of trademarks. London: Phaidon Press Ltd.
Rosson, P. & Brooks, M. R. 2004. M&As and corporate visual identity: An exploratory study. Corporate Reputation Review, 7(2): 181.
Schechter, A. H. 1993. Measuring the value of corporate and brand logos. Design Management Journal, 4: 3-39.
Simões, C & Dibb, S. & Fisk, R. P. 2005. Managing corporate identity: An internal perspective. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 33(2): 153.
Stafford, M. R., Tripp, C. & Bienstock, C. C. 2004. The influence of advertising logo characteristics on audience perceptions of a nonprofit theatrical organization. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 26(1): 37- 45.
Stuart, H. 1998. Exploring the corporate identity/corporate image interface: An empirical study of accounting firms. Journal of Communication Management, 2(4): 357-371.
Stuart, H. & Muzzelec, L. 2004. Corporate makeovers: can hyena be rebranded?. Journal of Brand Management, 11(6): 472-483.
Van Riel, C.B.M. & Balmer, J.M.T. 1997. Corporate identity: the concept, its measurement and management. European Journal of Marketing, 31(5/6): 340-355.
Van Riel, C.B.M. & Van den Ban A. 2001. The added value of corporate logos – An empirical study. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4): 428.
Vartorella, W. 1990. Doing the bright thing with your company logo”. Advertising Age, 61: 31.
Zinkhan, G. M., Jaiishankar Ganesh, Anunpam Jaju & Hayes, L. 2001. Corporate image: A Conceptual framework for strategic planning. American Marketing Association. Conference Proceedings, 12: 152-160.
Attachments
Table 1 – Typology of the corporate identity structures that may be assumed in the context of a merger (Ettenson, 2004; Rosson e Brooks, 2004)
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Problem of Personal Identity Essay
  • Impact of Injury on a Person's Personal and Social Identity Essay
  • Influences of Components of Cultural Identity on Baker Delight Research Paper
  • Professional Counselors: Defining a Unique Identity within the Profession as it Relates to the Role of Effective Professionals Essay
  • Critics of Rites of passage through talent management progressions stages: an identity work perspective Essay
  • Identity Essay
  • Social Identity Essay
  • Identity Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free
Mens Fashion Suit Blazer Dress Formal Tops Luxury Jacket Floral Print Bar Coats | Faça a Coisa Certa Filme 1989 Torrent Clássico / Comédia / Drama 1080p 720p Bluray Full Faça a Coisa Certa | Chemistry/Physics PS test Time Travel based on Einstein’s theories