Biodiversity or biological diversity
It refers to the existence of wide range of different
types of organism in a given place at a given time .
It refers to the variety of life on Earth and the
variability among living organism & their
interactions , both within species & between
species, and also between ecosystems.
FLORA AND FAUNA
The plants and animals found in a
particular region are known as Flora
and Fauna respectively, of that
INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN WILDLIFE AND WILDLIFE PRODUCTS poses
a threat to the plants and animals .
For example –specific body parts like skins (tiger), furs (bears, fox), bones, ivory (elephants), sex organs, bile, skeletons, and claws(tiger) are highly valued as ornaments, jewelry or as medicines .
DESTRUCTIONS OF HABITATS TO GET ADDITIONAL AGRICULUTURAL
AND COMMERCIAL LAND has lead to the depletion of plant and animal species .
POLLUTION DUE TO HUMAN ACTIVITIES has resulted in global warming and climate change . This in turn has resulted in reduction in no. of species.
INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC SPECIES around the world is also a threat to bio diversity.
GENETIC POLLUTION- Endemic species can be threatened with
extinction through the process of genetic pollution, i.e.
uncontrolled hybridization, introgression and genetic swamping. Genetic pollution leads to homogenization or replacement of local genomes as a result of either a numerical and/or fitness
advantage of an introduced species.
OVEREXPLOITATION- It occurs when a resource is consumed at an unsustainable rate. This occurs on land in the form of overhunting, excessive logging, poor soil conservation in agriculture and the illegal wildlife trade.
Deforestation is the cutting
of trees to clear the forests
and using that land for
Deforestation is done for
the following reasons:Procuring land for
Building houses & factories
Using wood as fuel.
Using wood for making
The following are the consequence
of Deforestation:It increases the level of carbon
dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere
It increases temperature &
pollution level on the earth leading
to global warming
Ground water level is lowered as
trees hold the ground water close
Ecological balance is disturbed
Rainfall & the fertility of soil is
Chances of natural calamities such
as Droughts, Desertification and
We can conserve forests by following
ways :Afforestation :-Afforestation means planting
of trees. Replanting of trees in a forest is a
slow and expensive process but it is very
important part of conservation.
Forest management :- Conservation of trees
can be done by replacing trees that are cut
Preventing overgrazing :- Grazing animals
eat or trample young trees , destroy leaves
on lower branches and injure roots and
Preventing forest fires:- A forest fire
destroys standing timber and consumes the
seeds and young trees of the future forests.
Lightning is a natural cause of forests fires.
Wildlife conservation is closely related to
forest conservation. The increasing human
pressure on wildlife has led to the extinction
or disappearance of some of the species.
This pressure is in the following form:The destruction of habitats by deforestation to make houses or farmlands.
The overexploitation of animals species for
commercial use, such as the selling of the
skins of leopards, cheetahs and tigers .
Even their teeth and claws are sold.
Destruction of aquatic habitats by pollution
and various other reasons have made water
unfit for fish and other aquatic animals
STEPS TO CONSERVE
The IUCN (International Union
for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources) :Provides information about
threatened species of...
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