General Biology Endangered Animal Species Report
II. Physical Characteristics: Relatively small in size ,plain brown in color with reddish streaks, cone shaped bills, pale brown faces, long brown tails , reddish brown backs, pale white breast , brownish-red crown. Length 12.2 to 15.2 cm Weight 21 grams III. Food: Forage on the ground for seeds of herbaceous plants and pines, and for insects. Insescts include beetles, bugs, grasshoppers, crickets, millipedes and spiders. IV. Geographic Distribution: In Southeastern U.S. In few Ozark-area counties in Missouri V. Habitat: Areas with scattered, scrubby vegetation and a dense herbaceous understory. Dry, open pine or oak woods with an undercover of grasses and shrubs; brushy or overgrown hillsides or overgrown fields with thickets and brambles. Populations are highest in areas where forest fires are regular, eliminating hardwood understory shrubs VI. Reproduction: Males begin singing to attract mates and defend mating territories in late February to early March; monogamous; females build a cup-shaped nest; lay two sets of eggs each mating season VII. Why is Bachman’s Sparrow considered endangered? Their population has diminished mainly because of the logging of pine forests in the early 1900s. Succession of savannas and glades to dense, woody areas because of fire suppression and invasion by cedars into glades have also drastically reduced available habitat. VIII,Local Ecosystem: Lke Bachman sparrow, some animals prefer frequently burned areas like gopher tortoises that feed on grasses and herbs in frequently burned areas, and their burrows are often used by Bachman’s Sparrows for escape cover. Bachman sparrow disperses seeds and destroys some insects and other bugs to balance the ecosystem. Their commensal/parasitic species (symbiotic relationship in which one species is benefited while the other is unaffected ) are brown-headed cowbirds IX...
Cited: Cox, J. A. and C. D. Jones. 2007. Bachman 's Sparrow and the order of the phoenix. ABA Birding Magazine May/June 2008 Vol 40 pp 38-45. http://www.aba.org/birding/v40n3p38.pdf
Cox, J. A. and C. D. Jones. 2007. Home range and survival characteristics of male Bachman 's Sparrows in an old-growth forest managed with breeding-season burns. Journal of Field Ornithology 78:263–269. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40345962
Dewey, T. and N. Darin 2007. “Aimophila aestivalis” (Online), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed Nov/Dec 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Aimophila_aestivalis/
Dunning, J. B. 2006. Bachman 's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis). The birds of North America on line (A. Poole, Editor). Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/038 (accessed Nov/Dec 2013).
Missouri Dept. of Conservation, 2013. "Endangered Species Guidesheet" (On-line). Accessed Nov/Dec, 2013 at http://mdc.mo.gov/discover-nature/field-guide/bachmans-sparrow
US Army Corps of Engineers. Species Profile: Bachman 's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States. SERDP-98-11. Vicksburg, MS: SERDP. 1998. Accessed November 27, 2013 athttp://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/tes/pdfs/serdp98-11.pdf#search=%22Wilma%20A%20mitchell%20bachman 's%20sparrow%22
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